Copyright Statement:
The right to download any of the images found on these pages is granted for personal use only, and is one of the great benefits of the web. However, materials may not be reproduced in any edited form and without due credit to Columbia University and the Media Center for Art History. Any other reproduction or editing by any means mechanical or electronic without the express written permission of Columbia University is strictly prohibited.

Any reproduction of the contents of these pages without previous approval from the author constitutes a copyright infringement. There are clearly defined boundaries within the copyright laws which specify fair use of certain materials. Furthermore, if the user does not understand the definition of "fair use", he or she should not be reproducing the images. Please abide by these laws.

Public Law 94-553:
U.S. copyright is federal law, originating from the U.S. Constitution (Art. 1, sec. 8, cl. 8), which provides Congress with the power "to promote science and the useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors...the exclusive right to their...writings."

Copyright, as described in Public Law 94-553, enacted October 19, 1976, applies to "...original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed..." (cl. 102) including: literary works; musical works; dramatic works; pantomimes and choreographic works; pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works; motion pictures and other audiovisual works; and sound recordings.

Fair Use:
Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include--
  1. the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
  2. the nature of the copyrighted work;
  3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
  4. the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
According to Copyright Office document FL102, "The distinction between 'fair use' and infringement may be unclear and not easily defined. There is no specific number of words, lines, or notes that may safely be taken without permission. Acknowledging the source of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission."