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A defensive structure in the form of a gallery projecting
on brackets and built on the exterior of castle towers and
walls, with openings in the floor through which to drop molten
lead, boiling oil, and missiles on attacking forces.
An almond-shaped framing device in paintings and sculpture
usually used to highlight a significant figure such as Christ
or the Madonna and Child. Italian for "almond."
A handwritten book (codex) of either of ecclesiastical or
secular subject matter developed during the Early Christian
period and remaining typical of the period before the invention
of the printing press.
images, including both narrative scenes and ornamental decorations,
in ecclesiastical and secular manuscripts, often using a gold
A metamorphic rock, composed mostly of recrystallized calcite
and/or dolomite, often irregularly colored by impurities;
can also refer more broadly to any crystallized carbonate
rock, including true marble and certain types of limestone,
that will take a polish and can be used for architectural
and ornamental purposes. Individual quarries tended to produce
specific types of marble that might be prized for their consistency
A carved animal head used in decorative schemes sometimes
in conjunction with interlace or foliage motifs.
Christian ceremony consisting of sequences of prayers and
rituals constituting a commemorative sacrifice of the body
and blood of Christ symbolized by bread (the consecrated bread
or wafer of the Eucharist called the Host) and wine.
A building dedicated as the tomb or shrine
for a person of rank.
pattern (Greek key)
Continuous ornament consisting of winding lines, either angular
The upper surface, especially the top slab, of a consecrated
Christian altar designed as a table or box-like element.
A niche, chamber or slab on the wall of a mosque indicating
the qibla or direction of mecca.
slender towers of a mosque used to summon the congregation
Pulpits in mosques, having a small stand for
the speaker, parapet, canopy, narrow stairs, and usually a
gate at the foot of the stairs.
Small-scale paintings, either decorative or narrative, in
manuscripts, also called illuminations.
Liturgical headdresses worn by bishops and abbots usually
designed in a triangular format and often decorated with gold
or silver embroidery or other ornamentation.
Complex of buildings used to house a community of monks or
nuns, including a church and cloister, refectory for meals,
dormitory for sleep and, usually, a hostelry for guests and
a scriptorium for the production and copying of books (manuscripts).
Christian liturgical vessel designed to display the Host to
the congregation, either on an altar or in procession. Distinguished
from "pyxes," which are vessels used to hold the consecrated
Host on the altar or to carry the Eucharist to the sick.
A building material with adhesive qualities, composed of sand
and lime, or cement mixed with water, which gradually hardens
when exposed to air and used as the bonding element for brick
and stone work.
Wall or floor covering composed of small pieces of colored
stone (usually marble) or glass (tesserae) set in mortar and
forming either abstract designs or figural scenes. Used in
both secular and religious buildings in the Ancient world
and the Middle Ages. Christian mosaics are used a gold background
in which gold leaf was applied to the back of individual pieces
Building for used for worship by members of the Islamic faith.
Slender, vertical, non-supporting bars usually of masonry
or wood forming a division between doors, screens, or lights
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